The Most Common Thermal Insulation Materials

thermal insulation installation

The primary purpose of insulation is to prevent heat loss. However, insulation also helps save energy, protect against fire and minimise condensation due to steam-related problems. Having the right insulation materials could, therefore, mean the difference between life and death.

Many companies that offer insulation services confine their installations to these three materials. Note that while each of these elements is common, it may not be suitable for your situation.

Ask your service provider to recommend a good fit based on the noise the insulation releases (relative to the size of your house), flammability, and the environmental impact.


Manufacturers make fibreglass by weaving glass strands into an insulation-capable base, often silicon. As a result, it can reduce heat transfer.

The danger of using fibreglass is that it can have harmful health effects. It could damage lungs, eyes, and skin if handled without the proper safety wear. Fibreglass is also non-flammable, which means that there is zero risk of a fire in case of overheating.

Mineral wool

Mineral wool is an umbrella term used to refer to glass wool, rock wool or slag wool. Glass wool is fibreglass but made from second-hand glass, while rock wool comprises basalt.

Slag wool, on the other hand, is produced in steel mills from the slag that results from processing in the mill. It constitutes most of the mineral wool used in the installation. Mineral wool is not fire-resistant.


In terms of eco-friendly sources of insulation, cellulose tops the list. It is excellent for minimising damage by fire because of its compact nature. The downside of cellulose is that some people report allergies to the dust.

There are more types of insulation materials, but these are the most common. Other forms include hemp, polyurethane, straw, and polystyrene.

Besides fitting the material to your needs, another reason you need a professional insulating service is to avoid legal issues. Some insulators are illegal in some areas.